Cervical cancer screening awareness and uptake among under-screened women in a rural Nigerian community
Keywords:Cervical cancer, Awareness, screening methods, uptake
Background: Cervical cancer is the most frequent female genital tract malignancy in Nigeria, with the majority of patients suffering from advanced stages of the disease. A low level of awareness and knowledge of cervical cancer and screening has been identified as one of the causes of cervical screening underutilization in Nigeria. This study aims to determine the level of cervical cancer screening awareness and uptake among rural Nigerian women.
Method: The study design was cross sectional, carried out among adult women in the Orhuwhorun community in Udu Local Government Area of Delta State. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to recruit 234 women from May to June 2021. Data were collected by semi-structured, interviewer- administered questionnaire. Data analysis was done with SPSS v. 25.0.
Result: Two hundred and thirty-four women of mean age 41.08 years (SD ± 8.45) were enrolled. The level of awareness of cervical cancer screening methods was 9.4% while screening uptake was only 4.3% among rural women in Orhuwhorun.
Conclusion: The awareness of cervical cancer screening methods and uptake was very low among rural women in Delta State. It is, therefore, imperative that cervical cancer awareness campaigns among this populace are increased and screening services be less expensive and accessible.
Mailhot Vega RB, Balogun OD, Ishaq OF, Bray F, Ginsburg O, Formenti SC. Estimating child mortality associated with maternal mortality from breast and cervical cancer. Cancer. 2019;125(1):109-17.
Bruni L, Albero G, Serrano B, Mena M, Gómez D, Muñoz J, et al. ICO/IARC information centre on HPV and cancer (HPV information centre). Human papillomavirus related diseases in the world. Summary Report. 2019;17(6).
Adetule Y. Knowledge of cervical cancer preventive strategies among market women in Nigeria. Annals of Oncology. 2016;27:vi468.
Lim JN, Ojo AA. Barriers to utilisation of cervical cancer screening in Sub Sahara Africa: a systematic review. European journal of cancer care. 2017;26(1):e12444.
Ndikom CM, Ofi BA. Awareness, perception and factors affecting utilization of cervical cancer screening services among women in Ibadan, Nigeria: a qualitative study. Reproductive health. 2012;9(1):1-8.
Modibbo FI, Dareng E, Bamisaye P, Jedy-Agba E, Adewole A, Oyeneyin L, et al. Qualitative study of barriers to cervical cancer screening among Nigerian women. BMJ open. 2016;6(1):e008533.
Sherris J, Wittet S, Kleine A, Sellors J, Luciani S, Sankaranarayanan R, et al. Evidence-based, alternative cervical cancer screening approaches in low-resource settings. International perspectives on sexual reproductive health.2009;35(3):147-52.
Jedy-Agba E, Curado MP, Ogunbiyi O, Oga E, Fabowale T, Igbinoba F, et al. Cancer incidence Nigeria: a report from population-based cancer registries. Cancer epidemiology. 2012;36(5):e271-e8.
Balogun M, Odukoya O, Oyediran M, Ujomu P. Cervical cancer awareness and preventive practices: a challenge for female urban slum dwellers in Lagos, Nigeria. African Journal of Reproductive Health.2012;16(1):75-82.
Igwilo A, Igwilo U, Hassan F, Idanwekhai M, Igbinomwanhia O, Popoola A. The knowledge, attitude and practice of the prevention of cancer of the cervix in Okada Community. Asian Journal of Medical Sciences. 2012;4(3):95-8.
Wright K, Aiyedehin O, Akinyinka M, Ilozumba O. Cervical cancer: community perception and preventive practices in an urban neighborhood of Lagos (Nigeria). International Scholarly Research Notices. 2014;2014:1-9.
Bammeke OA, Ndikom CM. Awareness and attitudes of women towards cervical cancer screening in Oyo state, Nigeria. African Journal of Midwifery Women's Health. 2014;8(2):91-7.
Omotara BA, Yahya SJ, Amodu MO, Bimba JS. Assessment of the knowledge, attitude and practice of rural women of northeast Nigeria on risk factors associated with cancer of the Cervix. Health. 2013;2013.
Moser K, Patnick J, Beral V. Inequalities in reported use of breast and cervical screening in Great Britain: analysis of cross sectional survey data. BMJ global health. 2009;338.
Hirani S, Khan S, Akram S, Virji SN, Shaikh PA, Naeem E, et al. Knowledge, awareness, and practices of cervical cancer, its risk factors, screening, and prevention among women in Karachi, Pakistan. European Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2021;30(1):97-102.
Sudenga SL, Rositch AF, Otieno WA, Smith JS. Knowledge, attitudes, practices, and perceived risk of cervical cancer among Kenyan women: brief report. International Journal of Gynecologic Cancer.2013;23(5).
Chaka B, Sayed A-R, Goeieman B, Rayne S. A survey of knowledge and attitudes relating to cervical and breast cancer among women in Ethiopia. BMC public health. 2018;18(1):1-8.
Fitzpatrick M, Pathipati MP, McCarty K, Rosenthal A, Katzenstein D, Chirenje Z, et al. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices of cervical Cancer screening among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women participating in human papillomavirus screening in rural Zimbabwe. BMC Women's Health. 2020;20(1):1-10.
Touch S, Oh J-K. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward cervical cancer prevention among women in Kampong Speu Province, Cambodia. BMC cancer2018;18(1):1-8.
Ali-Risasi C, Mulumba P, Verdonck K, Vanden Broeck D, Praet M. Knowledge, attitude and practice about cancer of the uterine cervix among women living in Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo. BMC women's health. 2014;14(1):1-13.
Nkfusai NC, Cumber SN, Anchang-Kimbi JK, Nji KE, Shirinde J, Anong ND. Assessment of the current state of knowledge and risk factors of cervical cancer among women in the Buea Health District, Cameroon. The Pan African Medical Journal. 2019;33.
Barrow A, Onikan A, Nzoputam CI, Ekholuenetale M. Prevalence and determinants of cervical cancer awareness among women of reproductive age: evidence from Benin and Zimbabwe population-based data. Applied Cancer Research. 2020;40(1):1-13.
Ebu NI, Mupepi SC, Siakwa MP, Sampselle CM. Knowledge, practice, and barriers toward cervical cancer screening in Elmina, Southern Ghana. International journal of women's health. 2015;7:31-39.
Simaubi M, Ngoma M. Cervical cancer awareness and uptake of pap-smear services among women above 18 years of age. Medical Journal of Zambia. 2013;40(1):19-23.
Emanuel GO, Adesola BO, Oluwole KA, Mathew AS, Toyin EO, Aishatu O. Awareness and practice of cervical cancer screening among women accessing care in a rural tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Clin Med Res. 2015;4(4):120-126.
Ifediora CO, Azuike EC. Knowledge and attitudes about cervical cancer and its prevention among female secondary school students in Nigeria. Tropical Medicine & International Health. 2018 Jul;23(7):714-23
Akanbi OA, Iyanda A, Osundare F, Opaleye OO. Perceptions of nigerian women about human papilloma virus, cervical cancer, and HPV Vaccine. Scientifica. 2015;2015.
Owoeye I, Ibrahim I. Knowledge and attitude towards cervical cancer screening among female students and staff in a tertiary institution in the Niger Delta. International Journal of Medicine Biomedical Research. 2013;2(1):48-56.
Abugu LI, Nwagu EN. Awareness, knowledge and screening for cervical cancer among women of a faith-based organization in Nigeria. Pan African Medical Journal. 2021;39(1).
Hoque ME. Awareness of cervical cancer, Papanicolau's smear and its utilization among female, final year undergraduates in Durban, South Africa. Journal of cancer research therapeutics.2013;9(1):25.
- 2023-03-16 (2)
- 2023-01-07 (1)
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Journal and Publisher
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
The Journal is owned, published and copyrighted by the Nigerian Medical Association, River state Branch. The copyright of papers published are vested in the journal and the publisher. In line with our open access policy and the Creative Commons Attribution License policy authors are allowed to share their work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
This is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.
The use of general descriptive names, trade names, trademarks, and so forth in this publication, even if not specifically identified, does not imply that these names are not protected by the relevant laws and regulations. While the advice and information in this journal are believed to be true and accurate on the date of its going to press, neither the authors, the editors, nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein.
TNHJ also supports open access archiving of articles published in the journal after three months of publication. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g, in institutional repositories or on their website) within the stated period, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access). All requests for permission for open access archiving outside this period should be sent to the editor via email to email@example.com.