Relationship between Metabolic Syndrome and Uterine Leiomyoma: A Case Control Study


  • Olusi AM Royal infirmary Edinburgh, 51 Little France Cres, Old Dalkeith Rd, Edinburgh EH16 4SA
  • Rabiu KA Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Lagos State University College of Medicine, Ikeja, Lagos State, Nigeria
  • Oduola-Owoo BB Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Federal Medical Centre Ebute Metta
  • Rasheed MW Department of Anatomic Pathology, Federal University Dutse, College of Medicine and Allied Science, Faculty of Clinical Science, Jigawa State
  • Oduola-Owoo LT Department of Radiology, Federal Medical Centre, Ebutte Meta, Lagos
  • Windapo OB Federal Medical Centre Ebute Metta



Leiomyoma, Metabolic syndrome (Mets), Obesity, BMI (Body mass index), Case control study


Background: Uterine leiomyoma is the most common benign gynaecological tumour of the female reproductive tract. Although, the cause of uterine leiomyoma is still unclear; however, studies have shown that single and multiple components of metabolic syndrome such as hypertension, obesity, elevated triglycerides, and type 2 diabetes may be associated with the prevalence of uterine leiomyoma.

Method: This is a prospective case-control study conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecological of the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital from 26th March 2020 to September 28th, 2020. This study aimed to evaluate the associations between metabolic syndrome and uterine leiomyoma. A total of 165 cases were recruited and analysed for both the study population and control. All data was imputed onto a proforma. Statistical analysis was done using the Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 22. Conditional logistic regression was used to examine the associations between independent variables and uterine leiomyoma.  

Result: There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome between participants in the fibroid and non-fibroid group (3.7% vs1.8%, P=0.315). Prevalence of obesity and hyperglycaemia were significantly higher in the leiomyoma group compared to the control group (77.4% vs 20.2%, P<0.001 and 6.7% vs 1.8%, P=0.028. Regression analysis showed a three-fold risk of uterine fibroids among cases when waist circumference was elevated, (OR=3.876;95% CI,1.759-7.981).

Conclusion: There was no significant association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and uterine leiomyomas, however, the prevalence of obesity and hyperglycaemia were significantly associated with uterine leiomyoma.


Parker W. Uterine Myoma management. Fertil Steril. 2007;88(2):255–71.

Ogunniyi S, Fasubaa O. Uterine Fibromyoma in Ilesha, Nigeria. Niger Med Pract. 1990;19(6):93–5.

Emembolu J. Uterine Fibromyomata : presentation and management in Northern Nigerian. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 1987;25(5):413–6.

Aboyeji A, Ijaiya M. Uterine Fibroids: a ten-year clinical review in Ilorin, Nigeria. Niger J Med. 2002;11(1):16–9.

Anate M. Uterine fibroids in Federal Medical Centre, Lokoja: A five year review 2002-2006. Niger Clin Rev J. 2007; 1:5–12.

Okezie O, Ezeugwu H. Management of Uterine fibroids in Enugu. Niger J Obstet Gyneacology. 2006;26(4):363–5.

Wilcox L, Koonin L. Hysterectomy in the United States. Obstet Gynaecol. 2006;26(4):363–5.

Walker C, Stewart E. Uterine fibroids: the elephant in the room. Science. 2005;308(5728):1589–92.

Sparic R, Mirkovic L, Malvasi A. Epidemiology of uterine myomas: A Review. Int J fertilty Steril. 2016;9(4):424–35.

Marshall L, Spiegelman D, Barbieri R. Variation in the incidence of uterine leiomyoma among premenopausal women by age and race. Obstet Gynaecol. 1997;90(6):967–73.

Faerstein E, Szklo M, Rosenshein N. Risk factors for uterine leiomyoma: a practice-based case-control study. I. African-American heritage, reproductive history, body size and smoking. Am J Epdemiology. 2001;153(1):1–10.

Gross K, Morton C. Genetics and the development of fibroids. Clin Obstet Gynaecol. 2001;44(2):335–49.

Sato F, Mori M, Nishi M. Familial aggregation of uterine myoma in Japanese women. J Epidemiol. 2002;12(3):249–53.

Luoto R, RUtanen E, Auvinen A. Fibroids and hypertension: a cross-sectional study of women undergoing hysterectomy. J Reprod Med. 2001;46(4):359–64.

Okoronkwo M. Body weight and uterine leiomyomas among women in Nigeria. West Afr J Med. 1999;18(1):52–4.

Chiaffarino F, Parazzini F, La Vecchia C. Diet and uterine myomas. Obstet Gynaecol. 1999;94(3):395–8.

Deedwania P, Gupta R. Management issues in Metabolic Syndrome. J Assoc Physician, India. 2006;54(1):797–810.

Reaven G. Metabolic Syndrome: pathophysiology and implication for management of cardiovascular disease. Circulation. 2002;106(3):286–8.

Charan J, Biswas T. How to calculate sample size for different study designs in medical research. Indian J Psychol Med. 2013;35(2):121–6.

Alberti K, Eckel R, Grundy S. Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: A joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute; America Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International At. Circulation. 2009;120(16):1640–5.

Tak J, Lee Y, Park S. Association between uterine leiomyoma and metabolic syndrome in parous premenopausal women. A case-control study. Medicine (Baltimore). 2012;95(46):e5325.

Moon K, Ryu S, Kim K. Relationship between Metabolic syndrome and Uterine Fibroids in premenopausal Korean women: A case-control study. Korean J Fam Pr. 2013;3(3):437–41.

Takeda T, Sakata M, Isobe A. Relationship between Metabolic syndrome and Uterine leiomyomas: A case-control study. Gynecol Obs Invest. 2008;66(1):14–7.

BeLue R, Okoror T, Iwelunmor J. An overview of cardiovascular risk factor burden in sub-Saharan African countries: A socio-cultural perspective. Glob Heal. 2009;5(3):10.

Uimari O, Auvinen J, Jokelainen J. Uterine fibroids and cardiovascular risk. Hum Reprod. 2016;31(12):2689–703.

Babah OA, Oluwole AA, Afolabi BB. Effect of obesity on the development of uterine leiomyoma: a rerospective study of 169 women who had myomectomy in southern Nigeria. JOSR-JDMS 2014;13(3):74-78.

Antai D, Moradi T. Urban area disadvantage and under 5 mortalities in Nigeria: The effect of rapid urbanization. Env Heal Perspect. 2010;118(6):877–88.

Baird D, Travois G, Wilson R. Uterine leiomyomata in relation to insulin-like growth factor-1, Insulin and diabetes. Epidemiology. 2009;20(4):604–10.

Faerstein E, Szklo M, Rosenshein N. Risk factors for uterine leiomyoma: a practice-based case-control study. II. Atherogenic risk factors and potential sources of uterine irritation. Am J Epdemiology2. 2001;153(1):11–9.

Hou ZM, Sun Q, Liu YZ, Chen TF, Tang N. Effects of insulin resistance on myometrial growth. Int J Clin Exp Med. 2015 Jan 15;8(1):1552-7.

Wise LA, Laughlin-Tommaso SK. Epidemiology of Uterine Fibroids: From Menarche to Menopause. Clin Obstet Gynecol. 2016 Mar;59(1):2-24.

Parazzini F. Risk factors for clinically diagnosed uterine fibroids in women around menopause. Maturitas. 2006;55(2):174–9.

Daniel O, Adejumo O, Adejumo E. Prevalence of hypertension among urban slum dwellers in Lagos, Nigeria. J Urban Heal. 2013; 90:1016–25.

Jarrett R, Edward R, Malspeis S. A prospective study of hypertension and risk of uterine leiomyomata. Am J Epidemol. 2005;161(1):628–38.

He Y, Zeng Q, Li X. The association between subclinical artherosclerosis and uterine fibroids. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e57089.




How to Cite

Olusi, A. M., Rabiu, K. A., ODUOLA-OWOO, B. B., Rasheed, M. W., ODUOLA-OWOO, L. T., & Windapo, O. B. (2024). Relationship between Metabolic Syndrome and Uterine Leiomyoma: A Case Control Study . The Nigerian Health Journal, 24(1), 1058–1069.

Similar Articles

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 > >> 

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.