Maternal Risk Factors Associated With Adverse Pregnancy Outcome: Low Birth Weight - A Retrospective Study


  • Bright Owhondah Ogbondah Rivers state university
  • Kenneth Okagua Rivers State University
  • Owhondah Golden Rivers State University
  • Jaja Ishmael Rivers State University
  • Larry Nsirim Rivers State Ministry of Health



maternal, height, mean arterial blood pressure, age, gestational age, birth weight.


Background: Low birth weight (LBW) which has become a major public health issue affects mostly developing countries and is a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. It is significantly associated with maternal variables as age, height, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and gestational age (GA)

Method: The study is a retrospective descriptive study conducted at general hospital Bonny, Rivers State. The study involved retrospective data collection from the records of participants kept at the records department of the hospital. Study population included all eligible pregnant women who presented for antenatal care (ANC) and also had their babies delivered at the hospital. Data for the research was derived from existing records in the past six years, from 1st January 2015 to 31st December 2020. Records were scrutinized for completeness and records without complete data on variables required were excluded. Also excluded, were records which revealed medical condition which could affect fetal growth. Multiple regression analysis was done with SPSS version 23.0 to determine continues variables which were significant at p value less than or equal 0.05 level.

Result:The mean age of participants was 29.3±5.8 with women within the age grade 21 – 30 years as the most predominant in the study. Most women were employed; 274 (68.5%) while 283 (70.8%) were partnered. There was a statistically significant association between maternal MAP, height, age and GA with birth weight of infants.

Conclusion: Maternal variables such as age, MAP, height and GA of newborn were significant predictors of LBW.


Author Biographies

Bright Owhondah Ogbondah, Rivers state university

Department of Community medicine, Lecturer 1

Kenneth Okagua, Rivers State University

Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology

Owhondah Golden, Rivers State University

Department of Community Medicine

Jaja Ishmael, Rivers State University

Department of Community Medicine

Larry Nsirim, Rivers State Ministry of Health

Public Health Directorate


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2022-04-12 — Updated on 2022-07-12


How to Cite

Ogbondah, B. O., Okagua, K., Golden, O., Ishmael, J., & Nsirim, L. (2022). Maternal Risk Factors Associated With Adverse Pregnancy Outcome: Low Birth Weight - A Retrospective Study. The Nigerian Health Journal, 22(1), 28–45. (Original work published April 12, 2022)

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