Normal Lip Dimension in Females: an Aid to Lip re-construction Surgeries

Tombari Joseph Gbeneol, Promise Nnamdi Wichendu

Abstract


Background: The lip is the predominant structure responsible for the aesthetics of the lower third of the face. With the ethno-racial differences in lip dimensions, there is the need to generate normative anthropometric values which will serve as baseline data for Nigerian females.

Aim: To establish reference standards in lip anthropometry for Eastern Nigerian females, which will serve as a guide to Maxillofacial, Plastic and Reconstructive Surgeons practicing in Nigeria.

Methods: A gender based cross–sectional study on the anthropometric variables of the lips of 220 females, from 6 months to 55 years, in Enugu, Eastern Nigeria. The results were compared with previous study on females in other populations.

Results: There was a progressive increase in mean values of the intercommissural distance with the lips relaxed and measured in a straight line (ICD – Sc) with increasing age (6 months to 12 years).  There was progressive increase in the mean values of the intercommissural distance with lips voluntarily retracted maximally laterally, from 6.1 to 12 years, reaching a maximum at 10.1 to 12.0 years. The height of the upper lip demonstrated a progressive increase from 6 months to 8 years. There was a minimal increase in inter soft tissue gape (ISG) in the subjects in the 10.1 to 12.0 years age group, which subsequently decreases in a fairly constant pattern.

Conclusion: This study provided standard values for lip dimensions for Enugu females which can be used as a guide in reconstructive surgery involving Nigerian females especially those of Enugu extraction.


Keywords


Anthropometry, Lips, Intercommissural distance, Maxillofacial

References


Fogel ML, Stranc MF. Lip Function: A Study of Normal Lip Parameters. British Journal of Plastic Surgery 1984; 37:542-549.

Singh I. Development of the Face. In: Singh I. Human Embryology, 7th Ed. New Delhi: Macmillan Limited, 1976; 136-142.

Moore KI, ed. The Developing Human, 4th ed. Philadephia: Saunders, 1988; 190-193.

Trelles MA, Pardo L, Velez M, Garcia-Solana L, Rigau J. The Search for a Youthful upper Lip via Laser Resurfacing. Plastic ReconstructiveSurgery 2000; 105: 1162-1169.

Ludwig KU, Ahmed ST, BÖhmer AC, Sangani NB, Varghese S, Klamt J, Gütlepe P, Hofmann A, Rubini M, Aldhorae KA, Steeger-Theunissen RP, Rojas-Martinez A, Reiter R,Borck G, Knapp M, Nakatomi M, Graf D, Mangold E, Peters H. Meta-analysis Reveals Genome-Wide Significance at 15q13 for NonsyndromicClefting of Both Lip and the Palate, and Functional Analyses Implicate GREM1 As a Plausible Causative Gene. PLOS Genetics, 2016; 12(3):e1005914

Zide BM. Deformities of the Lips and Cheeks. In: McCarthy, JG, ed. Plastic Surgery, Philadephia: Saunders, 1990;209.

Gray H. Fasciae and muscles of the Head. In: Warwick R, William PC. Gray’s Anatomy. Edinburgh: Longman, 1978; 496-503.

Thorne CH, Development of the Face. In: Grabb& Smith’s Plastic Surgery, 6th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins 2007; 183-186.

Stranc MF, Fogel ML. Lip Function: A study of oral continence. British Journal of Plastic Surgery. 1984; 37:550-557.

Edler R, Agarwal P, Wertheim D, Greenhill D. The use of anthropometric proportion indices in the measurement of facial attractiveness. European Journal of Orthodontics 2006; 28: 274-281.

Farkas LG. Anthropometry of the attractive North American Caucasian face. In: Farkas LG, ed. Anthropometry of the Head and Face.2nd Ed. New York: Raven Press, 1994; 159–179.

Farkas LG, Hreczko TA, Katic MJ. Craniofacial norms inNorth American Caucasians from

birth (one year) to young adulthood. In: Farkas LG, ed. Anthropometry of the Head and

Face.2nd Ed. New York: Raven Press, 1994; 241–335.

Ferrario VF, Sforza C, Miani A, Tartaglia G. Craniofacial morphometryby photographic evaluations. American Journal of Orthodontics &DentofacialOrthopedics 1993; 103:327–337.

Calhoun KH. Lip Anatomy and functions. In: Calhoun KH, Sternberg CM Surgery of the lips. New York: Thieme Medical Publishers, 1991; 1-10.

Hajnisova N. Growth of the nose and mouth in Children of 6-18 years of age. In: Sanvenero-Rosselli G, Boggio-Robutti G. Transactions of the 4th International Congress of Plastic & Reconstructive Surgeons, Amsterdam: ExcerptaMedica Foundation, 1967; 461-71.

Tobin GR, O’Daniel TG. Lip reconstruction with motor and sensory innervated composite flaps. Clinical Plastic Surgery 1990; 17:623-632.

Ferrario VF, Sforza C, Tartaglia GM, Sozzi D, Caru A. Three dimensional lip morphometry in adults operated on for cleft lip and palate. Plastic &Reconstructive Surgery 2003; 111: 2149-2156.

Fasika OM. Lip Parameters in Nigerian Children.Plastic &Reconstructive Surgery 1993; 91: 446-449

Aboucaya WA. The smile Classification and criteria, applications in facial aesthetics. NouvPresse Med 1973; 2:2611-2616.

Ferrario VF, Sforza C, Dalloca LL, De Franco DJ. Assessment of facial form modifications in orthodontics: proposal of a modified computerized mesh diagram analysis. American Journal of Orthodontics &DentofacialOrthopedics 1996; 109:263–270.

Ferrario VF, Sforza C, Poggio CE, Serrao G. Facial three-dimensional morphometry. American Journal of Orthodontics &DentofacialOrthopedics.1996; 109:86–93.

Moorrees CF, Kean MR. Natural head position, a basic consideration in the interpretation of cephalometric radiographs. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 1958; 16:213–234.

Cooke MS, Wei SH. A summary five-factor cephalometric analysis based on natural head posture and the true horizontal.American Journal of Orthodontics &DentofacialOrthopedics1988;93:213–223.

Lundström A, Forsberg CM, Peck S, McWilliam J. A proportional analysis of the soft tissue facial profile in young adults with normal occlusion.Angle Orthodontic 1992; 62: 127–133.

Ferrario VF, Sforza C, Poggio CE, Schmitz JH. Three-dimensional study of growth and development of the nose.Cleft Palate Craniofac J 1997; 34:309–317.

Ferrario VF, Sforza C, Miani A Jr, Tartaglia G. Craniofacial morphometry by photographic evaluations. American Journal of Orthodontics &DentofacialOrthopedics. 1993; 103:327–337.

Nanda RS, Ghosh J. Facial soft tissue harmony and growth in orthodontic treatment. Semininars in Orthodontics 1995; 1:67–81.

Burstone CJ. Lip posture and its significance in treatment planning. American Journal of Orthodontics 1967; 53:262–284.

Mack MR. Vertical dimension: a dynamic concept based on facial form and oropharyngeal function. Journal of Prosthetics & Dentistry 1991; 66:478-485.

Farkas LG. Anthropometry of the attractive North American Caucasian face. In: Farkas LG, ed. Anthropometry of the Head and Face. 2nd ed. New York: Raven Press. 1994; 159–179.

Ferrario VF, Sforza C, Serrao G. A three-dimensional quantitative analysis of lips in normal young adults.Cleft palate-craniofacial journal 2000; 37(1) 48-54.

Hajnis K, Farkas LG, Ngim RC, Lee ST, Venkatadri G. Racial and ethnic morphometric differences in the craniofacial complex. In: Farkas LG, ed. Anthropometry of the Head and Face. 2nd ed. New York: Raven Press 1994; 201–218.1991; 66:478–485.

Peck S, Peck L. Selected aspects of the art and science of facial esthetics. Semininars in Orthodontics. 1995; 1:105–126.

Tanner JM, Whitehouse RH, Takaishi M. Standards from birth to maturity for height, weight, height velocity and weight velocity: British children. 1965-II.Arch Dis Child 1966; 41:613-635.

Ferrario VF, Sforza C, Poggio CE, Schmitz JH. Facial volume changes during normal human growth and development. AnatomicalRecord 1998; 250:480–487.

Ferrario VF, Sforza C, Poggio CE, Serrao G, Miani A Jr. A three-dimensional study of sexual dimorphism in the human face.International Journal of Adult Orthodontics &OrthognathicSurgery 1994; 9:303–310.

Ferrario VF, Sforza C, Poggio CE, Tartaglia G. Distance from symmetry: a three-dimensional evaluation of facial asymmetry. Journal of Oral &Maxillofacial Surgery 1994; 52:1126–1132.

Ferrario VF, Sforza C, Poggio CE, Tartaglia G. Facial morphometry of television actresses compared with normal women. Journal of Oral &Maxillofacial Surgery 1995; 53:1008–1014.

Ferrario VF, Sforza C, Puleo A, Poggio CE, Schmitz JH. Three-dimensional facial morphometry and conventional cephalometrics: a correlation study. International Journal of Adult Orthodontics &OrthognathicSurgery1996; 11:329–338.

Wikepedia. Enugu, Nigeria. (Online).Available from “http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Enugu" 2007 Encarta Encyclopaedia. Accessed 5/3/2009.

Federal Republic of Nigeria, Official Gazette No.24, Vol. 94, 15th May 2007, FGP 71/52007/2500(0L 24).

Centre for Disease Control (CDC). Database and statistics program for Public Health (Online). Available from www.cdc.gov/epo/epiinfo.htmEpiinfo: Current version 6.04d 2000. Accessed 10/03/2009.

Araoye M. Sampling Methods.Research Methodology with Statistic for Health and Social Sciences. Ibadan. Nathadex Publishers, 2003:118.

National Education Directory, Training Guide International Publications. 2003, Vol.1, 233-

45.

Ayoola O, Ebersole K, Omotade OO, Tayo BO, Brieger WR, Salami K, Dugas LR, Cooper RS,

Luke A .Relative height and weight among children and adolescents of rural Southwestern

Nigeria. Ann Hum Biol2009; 36(4):388-399.

Uche PI. The height and weight of Nigerian children: The Fit of Ehrenberg’s Equation.

Biometrics 1981; 37: 145-151.

Skinazi GL, Lindauer SJ, Isaacson RJ. Chin, nose, and lips: Normal ratios in young men and women. American Journal of Orthodontic &DentofacialOrthopedics.1994; 106:518–523.

Sivan Y, Merlob P, Reisner SH. Philtrum Length and Intercommissural Distance in Newborn Infants. J Med Genet 1983; 20: 130-131.

Juberg RC, Sholte FG, Touchstone WJ. Normal Values for Intercanthal Distances of 5-11yr American blacks. Pediatrics 1975; 55:431-436.

Bardach J, Bakowska J, McDermott-Murray J, Mooney MP, Dusdieker LB. Lip Pressure Changes Following Lip Repair in Infants with Unilateral Clefts of the Lip and Palate. Plastic &Reconstructive Surgery 1984; 74:476-481.


Full Text: Untitled PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

ISSN: 1597-4292

x
Message