Malignant Melanoma: Our Experience at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt

Tombari Joseph Gbeneol, Adaeze C Nwachukwu, Aria Nimi Oti, Ijeoma Joy Chinyelu Onwuagha, Masenibo Kemuel Nelson Briggs, Kamenwo A Ovusike

Abstract


Background: Malignant melanoma is a neoplasm of melanin producing cells of the body that develop from melanocytes. All humans have naevi as beauty spots on their bodies. Although, it was once considered uncommon, the annual incidence has increased dramatically over the past decades. Melanoma has been reported as the 19th most common cancer worldwide with estimated age standardized incidence rates of 2.8 – 3.1 per 100,000. 

Exaggerated response to sun exposure e.g. sunburns, freckling, high risk skin types, excessive use of tanning beds, genetic predisposition and immunosuppression. Global warming and depletion of the ozone layer may contribute to its increase.

Aim: The study aims to create awareness of the potential hazards which can develop from naevi in the human body; to know the early clinical features of malignant transformation for early treatment.

Methods: This is a retrospective study of melanoma patients between 2011 and 2021. A total of 14 patients (9 females and 5 males) were examined and diagnosed for different types of melanoma (right and left foot) at University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt.

Results: 14 patients were diagnosed, males 5 and females 9.    

Findings in this study showed increased number of melanoma in females (64.3%) than males (39.7%); mean age was 56.9 years. 

Conclusion: Malignant melanoma though not a common skin cancer has recorded an increased incidence over the last couple of decades. Awareness of indicators of transformation from naevi to malignant melanoma is key to early detection and treatment for reduced morbidity and mortality.


Keywords


Melanoma, naevus, malignant transformation, early detection

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