Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Renal Impairment among Young Adults in a Tertiary Institution in Southwest Nigeria
Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Renal Impairment among Young Adults
Keywords:Prevalence, renal dysfunction, cardiovascular risk factors, young adults, Nigeria
Background: Specific research is sparse on renal dysfunction among homogenous group of young adults. This study estimated the prevalence of renal dysfunction among apparently healthy young adults and determine association (if any) between renal dysfunction and some cardiovascular risk factors.
Methodology: Undergraduates (18-37 years) of a tertiary institution were studied on 2017 World Kidney Day. Their biodata, blood pressure, anthropometry, total cholesterol and estimated glomerular filtration rate were determined. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 20.0.
Results: A total of 640 students were studied (M:F=1:3.8). Their mean age was 23.1±2.8 years. Thirty-three (5.2%) participants had renal dysfunction (eGFR < 60ml/min/1.73m2). The mean age of subjects with renal dysfunction (eGFR < 60ml/min/1.73m2) was significantly higher with an inverse association to renal function (p = 0.005).
Two hundred and fifty-seven (40.2%) and 58 (9.1%) participants were pre-hypertensive and hypertensive respectively; overweight, abdominal obesity and hypercholesterolaemia were found among 12.2%, 14.2% and 8.1% of subjects respectively. The mean body mass index (p = 0.009) and serum total cholesterol (p = 0.003) were significantly higher among females. There was a higher prevalence of renal dysfunction among females even though this was not to the significant level (5.9 v 2.2%, p = 0.12).
Conclusions: The prevalence of renal dysfunction among young adults is lower than current global estimates. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors for CKD were lower than that of older adults with no significant association to renal dysfunction. Increasing age was found to be significantly associated with reduced renal function.
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