Perception of Covid-19 and Acceptance of Vaccination in Delta State Nigeria

Blessing Osagumwendia Josiah, Marios Kantaris

Abstract


Background: With more than 80million recorded cases and over 1.7million deaths at the time of this research, providing safe effective vaccine to curb the ravaging COVID-19 has emerged a global priority. Public attitude towards COVID-19 and interventions like vaccination varies considerably as the access to knowledge. This study looked at knowledge of COVID-19 and its impact on acceptance of the upcoming vaccination in Delta State, Nigeria. Method: Cross-sectional survey of 401 participants from three Local Government Areas in Delta North, Central, and South Senatorial Districts carried out in December 2020. Data collected by Google forms was analyzed using Microsoft Excel and SPSS. Results: For COVID-19 knowledge, 75.6% of respondents were aware of the cause and 81.2% had knowledge of mode of transmission. For preventive measures, 77.6% practice social distancing, 65.6% hand washing, 61.6% use of hand sanitizers and 67.6% wearing of masks. Also, 76.6% knew about the vaccines in development, 53.9% were aware of Nigeria’s interest in rolling out the vaccine and 48.6% were willing to accept the vaccine. A statistically significant relationship at p < 0.05 was observed between vaccine acceptance and gender, religious affiliation, education, employment status, income, knew a person with COVID-19, self-reported susceptibility to COVID-19, and individual agreement with effectiveness of government COVID-19 interventions. Conclusion: The population had a good knowledge of COVID-19 and the vaccine, although more than half were not willing to accept it. This calls for interventions to encourage trust and compliance as the government sets out to invest in vaccine rollout.


Keywords


COVID-19, Vaccine, Perception, Acceptance, Factors, Delta State

References


WHO. Q&A Detail. World Health Organization. 2020b October 28. Available on https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/coronavirus-disease-(covid-19)-vaccines?gclid=CjwKCAiAzNj9BRBDEiwAPsL0d3LzHYJYqQyAlPAkVCvXWfPaOT3UFj7-753Fxm8VkFiD-tppyY-PqxoCu8kQAvD_BwE [cited 2020 Dec 10th]

Philips Z, Johnson S, Avis M, Whynes DK. Human papillomavirus and the value of screening: young women’s knowledge of cervical cancer. Health Educ Res. 2003 Jun;18(3):318–28. [cited 2020 Nov 28th]. https://doi.org/10.1093/her/cyf022 PMID:12828233

Adebisi YA, Eliseo-Lucero Prisno D, Nuga BB. Last fight of wild polio in Africa: Nigeria’s Battle. Public Health in Practice. 2020;1:100043. [cited 2020 Dec. 11th] https://doi.org/10.1016/j.puhip.2020.100043.

Mohanty S, Carroll-Scott A, Wheeler M, Davis-Hayes C, Turchi R, Feemster K, et al. Vaccine hesitancy in pediatric primary care practices. Qual Health Res. 2018 Nov;28(13):2071–80. [cited 2020 Dec 18th]. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049732318782164 PMID:29947574

HRW. Africa: Covid-19 Exposes Healthcare Shortfalls. Human Rights Watch. 2020. Available https://www.hrw.org/news/2020/06/08/africa-covid-19-exposes-healthcare-shortfalls [cited 2020 Dec 7th].

Abikoye TM. Collateral damage: the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the care of a patient with tuberculous neuroretinitis in Lagos, Nigeria. Pan African Medical Journal, 2020 35, 2–4. https://doi.org/10.11604/pamj.supp.2020.35.2.24691. [cited 2020 Dec 12th]

Kebede Y, Yitayih Y, Birhanu Z, Mekonen S, Ambelu A. Knowledge, perceptions and preventive practices towards COVID-19 early in the outbreak among Jimma university medical center visitors, Southwest Ethiopia. PLoS One. 2020 May;15(5):e0233744. [cited 2020 Dec 17th] https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0233744 PMID:32437432

Offiong AV. Nigeria: A pandemic and a weak health system. GGA. 2020, July 24. Available on https://gga.org/nigeria-a-pandemic-and-a-weak-health-system/ [cited 2020 Dec 9th]

Hu Y, Chen Y, Wang Y, Song Q, Li Q. Prenatal vaccination education intervention improves both the mothers’ knowledge and children’s vaccination coverage: evidence from randomized controlled trial from eastern China. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2017 Jun;13(6):1–8. [cited 2020 Dec 7th]. https://doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2017.1285476 PMID:28319453

Bertin P, Nera K, Delouvée S. Conspiracy Beliefs, Rejection of Vaccination, and Support for hydroxychloroquine: A Conceptual Replication-Extension in the COVID-19 Pandemic Context. Front Psychol. 2020 Sep;11:565128. [cited 2020 Dec 10th] https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.565128 PMID:33071892

Al Jazeera. Pfizer seeks US FDA approval for COVID-19 vaccine’s emergency use. US & Canada News | Al Jazeera; (2020, November 20) Retrieved from https://www.aljazeera.com/economy/2020/11/20/pfizer-seeks-us-emergency-use-greenlight-for-covid-19-vaccine [Cited 2020 Dec. 21st].

Albarracín D, Johnson BT, Fishbein M, Muellerleile PA. Theories of reasoned action and planned behavior as models of condom use: a meta-analysis. Psychol Bull. 2001 Jan;127(1):142–

[cited Dec. 11th 2020].

Balick R. (2020, November 6). COVID-19 vaccine faces Black communities’ centuries-long mistrust of health care. American Pharmacists Association. https://www.pharmacist.com/article/covid-19-vaccine-faces-black-communities-centuries-long-mistrust-health-care [cited 2020 Dec 3rd].

Schmidt H, Gostin LO, Williams MA. Is It Lawful and Ethical to Prioritize Racial Minorities for COVID-19 Vaccines? JAMA. 2020 Nov;324(20):2023–4. [cited 2020 Dec 17th] https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.20571 PMID:33052391

Staff R. Fact check: Black people are not being targeted for UK coronavirus vaccine trials. U.S. 2020. Available on https://www.reuters.com/article/uk-factcheck-vaccine-black-idUSKBN2471CR [cited 2020 Nov 20th].

Ducharme J.. Melinda Gates Lays Out Her Biggest Concern for the Next Phase of the COVID-19 Pandemic. Time. 2020 Available on https://time.com/5847483/melinda-gates-covid-19/ [cited 2020 Nov 27th].

Goodman J, Carmichael F. Coronavirus: Bill Gates ‘microchip’ conspiracy theory and other vaccine claims fact-checked. BBC News. 2020, May 30. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/news/52847648 [cited 2020 Nov 19th].

Bednarczyk RA. Examining the “why” of vaccine hesitancy. Health Psychol. 2018 Apr;37(4):316–7. [cited 2020 Dec 7th]. https://doi.org/10.1037/hea0000596 PMID:29608075

Chukwuocha UM, Okorie PC, Iwuoha GN, Ibe SN, Dozie IN, Nwoke BE. Awareness, perceptions and intent to comply with the prospective malaria vaccine in parts of South Eastern Nigeria. Malar J. 2018 May;17(1):187. [cited 2020 Nov 27th]. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12936-018-2335-0 PMID:29720172

Akanbi OA, Iyanda A, Osundare F, Opaleye OO. Perceptions of Nigerian Women about Human Papilloma Virus, Cervical Cancer, and HPV Vaccine. Scientifica (Cairo). 2015;2015:285702. [cited 2020 Dec 7th] https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/285702 PMID:26550522

Larson HJ. Finding Exemplars of Restored Vaccine Confidence: A Pathway for COVID-19 Recovery, WorldBank blogs. 2020. Available on https://blogs.worldbank.org/health/finding-exemplars-restored-vaccine-confidence-pathway-covid-19-recovery [cited 2020 Nov 20th].

Ogundele OA, Ogundele T, Beloved O. Vaccine hesitancy in Nigeria: contributing factors – way forward. The Nigerian Journal of General Practice. 2020;18(2):1–4. [cited 2020 Dec 4th] https://doi.org/10.4103/NJGP.NJGP_28_19.

Butler R, MacDonald NE; SAGE Working Group on Vaccine Hesitancy. Diagnosing the determinants of vaccine hesitancy in specific subgroups: The Guide to Tailoring Immunization Programmes (TIP). Vaccine. 2015 Aug;33(34):4176–9. [cited 2020 Dec 5th]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.04.038 PMID:25896376

Babalola S, Olabisi A. Community and Systematic Factors Affecting the Uptake of Immunization in Nigeria: A Quantitative Study in Five States. Abuja, Nigeria: Department of International Development; 2004. [cited 2020 Dec 4th].

NDHS. Key Findings. National Demographic Health Survey; 2008. National Demographic Health Survey. Available on https://dhsprogram.com'pubs'pdf [cited 2020 Nov 20th].

NDHS. National Population Commission, Federal Republic of Nigeria. Final Report on Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey 2013. Rockville, MD, USA: ICF International; 2013. [cited 2020 Dec 7th].

Yahya M. Polio vaccines—“no thank you!” barriers to polio eradication in Northern Nigeria. Afr Aff (Lond). 2007;106(423):185–204. [cited 2020 Dec 5th] https://doi.org/10.1093/afraf/adm016.

PolitiFact. (2020). Alternative health website spreads false claim about COVID-19 vaccine side effects. Retrieved from https://www.politifact.com/factchecks/2020/dec/09/blog-posting/alternative-health-website-spreads-false-claim-abo/ on 28th December, 2020.

Open Access Government. The effect of ‘fake news’ on the medical industry. 2020. Available on https://www.openaccessgovernment.org/medical-industry/77254/ [cited 2020 Dec 28th].

Emmanuel Awucha N, Chinelo Janefrances O, Chima Meshach A, Chiamaka Henrietta J, Ibilolia Daniel A, Esther Chidiebere N. Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Consumers’ Access to Essential Medicines in Nigeria. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2020 Oct;103(4):1630–4. [cited 2020 Dec 7th] https://doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0838 PMID:32815509

NCDC. Nigeria Center for Control. 2020a. Available on https://covid19.ncdc.gov.ng/ on 27th November, 2020.

NCDC. NCDC COVID-19 outbreak in Nigeria situation report—Abuja: Nigeria Centre for Disease Control. 2020b. Available on https://ncdc.gov.ng/themes/common/files/sitreps/0daa083aeed110eddba8937c1f90a6d9.pdf. On 27th November, 2020.

Gbadamosi B. War on COVID-19: Oyo threatens to shut markets for flouting precautionary measures—Oyo state. The Pace Setter State. 2020. Available on https://oyostate.gov.ng/war-on-covid-19-oyo-threatens-to-shut-markets-for-flouting-precautionary-measures/ [cited 2020 Nov 27th].

Oleribe O, Ezechi O, Osita-Oleribe P, Olawepo O, Musa AZ, Omoluabi A, et al. Public perception of COVID-19 management and response in Nigeria: a cross-sectional survey. BMJ Open. 2020 Oct;10(10):e041936. [cited 2020 Dec 8th] https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-041936 PMID:33055123

Hassan Z, Hashim MJ, Khan G. Population risk factors for COVID-19 deaths in Nigeria at sub-national level. Pan Afr Med J. 2020 Aug;35(2 Suppl 2):131. [cited 2020 Dec 7th] https://doi.org/10.11604/pamj.supp.2020.35.2.25258 PMID:33193946

Adenubi OT, Adebowale OO, Oloye AA, Bankole NO, Adesokan HK, Fadipe OE, et al. Level of Knowledge, Attitude and Perception About COVID-19 Pandemic and Infection Control: A CrossSectional Study Among Veterinarians in Nigeria. Preprints, 10.20944/preprints202007.0337.v1. [cited 2020 Dec 9th]

Agusi ER, Ijoma SI, Nnochin CS, Njoku-Achu NO, Nwosuh CI, Meseko CA. The COVID-19 pandemic and social distancing in Nigeria: ignorance or defiance. Pan Afr Med J. 2020;35(2 Supp 2):52. [cited 2020 Dec 7th] https://doi.org/10.11604/pamj.supp.2020.35.2.23649.

Reuben RC, Danladi MM, Saleh DA, Ejembi PE. Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Towards COVID-19: An Epidemiological Survey in North-Central Nigeria. J Community Health. 2020 Jul; [cited 2020 Dec 27th] https://doi.org/10.1007/s10900-020-00881-1 PMID:32638198

Hedima EW, Michael SA, David EA. Knowledge and Risk Perception of the Novel Coronavirus Disease 2019 Among Adult Nigerians: A Cross-Sectional Study. medRxiv, preprint. 2020. Available on https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.08.23.20180141. Assessed 7th Dec. 2020

Ilesanmi O, Afolabi A. Perception and practices during the COVID-19 pandemic in an urban community in Nigeria: a cross-sectional study. PeerJ. 2020 Sep;8:e10038. [cited 2020 Dec 7th] https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.10038 PMID:33024646

Hager E, Odetokun IA, Bolarinwa O, Zainab A, Okechukwu O, Al-Mustapha AI. Knowledge, attitude, and perceptions towards the 2019 Coronavirus Pandemic: A bi-national survey in Africa. PLoS One. 2020 Jul;15(7):e0236918. [cited 2020 Dec 2th] https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0236918 PMID:32726340

Ogolodom MP, Mbaba AN, Alazigha N, Erondu, OF, Egbe NO, et al. Knowledge, Attitudes and Fears of HealthCare Workers towards the Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) Pandemic in South-South, Nigeria. Health Sci J. 2020 Sp. 1 (2). [cited 2020 Dec 5th].

Efe RT. Covid-19 Information Seeking Strategies of Rural Dwellers in Delta North, Nigeria. Library Philosophy and Practice (e-journal). 4421. 2020. https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/libphilprac/4421 [cited 2020 Dec 6th].

Enitan SS, Oyekale AO, Akele RY, Olawuyi KA, Olabisi EO, Nwankiti AJ, et al. Assessment of Knowledge, Perception and Readiness of Nigerians to Participate in the COVID-19 Vaccine Trial, International. J Vaccines Immun. 2020;4(1): [cited 2020 Nov 29th] https://doi.org/10.16966/2470-9948.123.

Olapegba PO, Ayandele O, Kolawole SO, Oguntayo R, Gandi JC, Dangiwa AL, et al. COVID-19 Knowledge and Perceptions in Nigeria. medPrint, 2020. Preprint. Available on https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/j356x. [cited 2020 Dec 7th'].

Oyeyemi O, Oladoyin V, Okunlola O, Mosobalaje A, Oyeyemi I, Adebimpe W, et al. COVID-19 pandemic: Nigerians’ knowledge, perception and adherence to preventive measures. Research Square, 2020 Preprint. Available on https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-49707/v1. Assessed 7th Dec. 2020

Iorfa SK, Ottu IF, Oguntayo R, Ayandele O, Kolawole SO, Gandi GC, et al. COVID-19 knowledge, risk perception and precautionary behavior among Nigerians: a moderated mediation approach. medRxiv. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.05.20.20104786. [cited 2020 Dec 9th].

Chukwuorji JC, Iorfa SK. Commentary on the coronavirus pandemic: nigeria. Psychol Trauma. 2020 Jun;12 S1:S188–90. [cited 2020 Nov 29th] https://doi.org/10.1037/tra0000786 PMID:32551760

Lichtenstein A, Ajayi R, Egbunike N. Across Africa, COVID-19 heightens tension between faith and science: some leaders reject expert advice to ban religious gatherings. 2020. Available on https://globalvoices.org/2020/03/25/across-africa-covid-19-heightens-tension-between-faith-and-science/ [cited 2020 Nov 26th].

Olapegba PO, Iorfa SK, Kolawole SO, Oguntayo R, Gandi JC, Ottu IF, et al. Survey data of COVID-19-related Knowledge, Risk Perceptions and Precautionary Behavior among Nigerians. Data Brief. 2020 May;30:105685. [cited 2020 Dec 7th] https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dib.2020.105685 PMID:32391411

Ughasoro MD, Esangbedo DO, Tagbo BN, Mejeha IC. Acceptability and Willingness-to-Pay for a Hypothetical Ebola Virus Vaccine in Nigeria. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015 Jun;9(6):e0003838. [cited 2020 Dec 9th]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003838 PMID:26076007

Maurer J, Uscher-Pines L, Harris KM. Perceived seriousness of seasonal and A(H1N1) influenzas, attitudes toward vaccination, and vaccine uptake among U.S. adults: does the source of information matter? Prev Med. 2010 Aug;51(2):185–7. [cited 2020 Dec 17th]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2010.05.008 PMID:20510270

Rubin GJ, Potts HW, Michie S. The impact of communications about swine flu (influenza A H1N1v) on public responses to the outbreak: results from 36 national telephone surveys in the UK. Health Technol Assess. 2010 Jul;14(34):183–266. [cited 2020 Dec 27th]. https://doi.org/10.3310/hta14340-03 PMID:20630124

Schwarzinger M, Flicoteaux R, Cortarenoda S, Obadia Y, Moatti JP. Low acceptability of A/H1N1 pandemic vaccination in French adult population: did public health policy fuel public dissonance? PLoS One. 2010 Apr;5(4):e10199. [cited 2020 Dec 18th]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0010199 PMID:20421908

Seale H, Heywood AE, McLaws ML, Ward KF, Lowbridge CP, Van D, et al. Why do I need it? I am not at risk! Public perceptions towards the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 vaccine. BMC Infect Dis. 2010 Apr;10(1):99. [cited 2020 Dec 6th]. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2334-10-99 PMID:20403201

Raude J, Caille-Brillet AL, Setbon M. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza vaccination in France: who accepted to receive the vaccine and why? PLoS Curr. 2010 Oct;2:RRN1188. [cited 2020 Dec 27th]. https://doi.org/10.1371/currents.RRN1188 PMID:20972476

Frishman A. Major reason for Nigerian boycott of polio vaccine. Health Aff (Millwood). 2009 Nov-Dec;28(6):1860–1. https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.28.6.1860-a PMID:19887431

Kubin L. Is there a resurgence of vaccine preventable disease in the U.S? J Pediatr Nurs. 2019 Jan - Feb;44:115–8. [cited 2020 Dec 1st]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pedn.2018.11.011 PMID:30683276

Khan F, Datta S, Quddus A, Vertefeuille A, Burns C, Jorba J, et al. Progress towards polio eradication, worldwide, January 2016-2018. Wkly Epidemiol Rec. 2018;93(13):241–8. [cited 2020 Dec 7th]. https://doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6718a4.

WHO. Yellow Fever – WHO supports government to tackle outbreaks in Delta and Enugu States. World Health Organization. 2020a. Available on https://www.afro.who.int/news/yellow-fever-who-supports-government-tackle-outbreaks-delta-and-enugu-states on 6th November, 2020.

WHO. PRESS RELEASE - WHO and UNICEF Congratulate Nigeria on Ending Wild Poliovirus; Call for Strengthening of Routine Immunization. WHO | Regional Office for Africa. 2020c, December 8 https://www.afro.who.int/news/press-release-who-and-unicef-congratulate-nigeria-ending-wild-poliovirus-call-strengthening#:%7E:text=Abuja%2C%2025%20August%202020%20%E2%80%93%20WHO,vaccinated%20against%20vaccine%2Dpreventable%20diseases. [cited 2020 Dec 9th].

Adepoju P. Here’s how people in Nigeria are avoiding vaccination; 2019. Available on https://www.devex.com/news/here-s-how-people-in-nigeria-are-avoiding-vaccination-94878 [cited 2020 Dec 6th].

Endarti D, Satibi S, Kristina SA, Farida MA, Rahmawanti Y, Andriani T. Knowledge, Perception, and Acceptance of HPV Vaccination and Screening for Cervical Cancer among Women in Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2018 Apr;19(4):1105–11. [cited 2020 Dec 2nd] https://doi.org/10.22034/APJCP.2018.19.4.1105 PMID:29699371

IPSOS. Three in four adults globally say they would get a vaccine for COVID-19. 2020. Available on https://www.ipsos.com/ipsos-mori/en-uk/three-four-adults-globally-say-they-would-get-vaccine-covid-19 [cited 2020 Dec 18th].

Adebisi YA, Alaran AJ, Bolarinwa OA, Akande-Sholabi W, Lucero-Prisno D. When it is available, will we take it? Public perception of hypothetical COVID-19 vaccine in Nigeria. Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) 2020 Project, https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.09.24.20200436., [cited 2020 Dec 13th]

Dubé E, Gagnon D, MacDonald NE; SAGE Working Group on Vaccine Hesitancy. Strategies intended to address vaccine hesitancy: review of published reviews. Vaccine. 2015 Aug;33(34):4191–203. [cited 2020 Dec 15th]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.04.041 PMID:25896385

Dubé E, Vivion M, MacDonald NE. Vaccine hesitancy, vaccine refusal and the anti-vaccine movement: influence, impact and implications. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2015 Jan;14(1):99–117. [cited 2020 Dec 9th]. https://doi.org/10.1586/14760584.2015.964212 PMID:25373435

Wang Q, Yue N, Zheng M, Wang D, Duan C, Yu X, et al. Influenza vaccination coverage of population and the factors influencing influenza vaccination in mainland China: A meta-analysis. Vaccine. 2018 Nov;36(48):7262–9. [cited 2020 Dec 6th]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.10.045 PMID:30340886

Vickers A. Why mandatory vaccination is unethical and immoral. 2019. Avaialble on https://www.stuff.co.nz/national/health/118291756/why-mandatory-vaccination-is-unethical-and-immoral [cited 2020 Dec 28th].

Falade BA. Vaccination resistance, religion and attitudes to science in Nigeria. A thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy to the Department of Social Psychology, London School of Economics and Political Science, London. 2014. Available on https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/46517693.pdf [cited 2020 Nov 27th].

Grantz KH, Claudot P, Kambala M, Kouyaté M, Soumah A, Boum Y, et al. Factors influencing participation in an Ebola vaccine trial among front-line workers in Guinea. Vaccine. 2019 Nov;37(48):7165–70. [cited 2020 Dec 7th]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.09.094 PMID:31623917

Obadare E. A crisis of trust: history, politics, religion and the polio controversy in Northern Nigeria. Journal of Prejudice. 2006;39(3):265–84. [cited 2020 Dec 12th]. https://doi.org/10.1080/00313220500198185.

Rosenthal SL, Rupp R, Zimet GD, Meza HM, Loza ML, Short MB, et al. Uptake of HPV vaccine: demographics, sexual history and values, parenting style, and vaccine attitudes. J Adolesc Health. 2008 Sep;43(3):239–45. [cited 2020 Dec 17th]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2008.06.009 PMID:18710678

The Guardian. COVID-19 vaccine trials beyond Nigeria’s rhetoric. Editorial, 2020. Available on https://guardian.ng/opinion/covid-19-vaccine-trials-beyond-nigerias-rhetoric/ on 27th Nov, 2020.

Ventola CL. Immunization in the United States: Recommendations, Barriers, and Measures to Improve Compliance: Part 1: Adult vaccinations. P T. 2016 Aug;41(8):492–506. [cited 2020 Dec 13th]. PMID:27504066

Vyas D, Galal SM, Rogan EL, Boyce EG. Training students to address vaccine hesitancy and/or refusal. Am J Pharm Educ. 2018 Oct;82(8):6338. [cited 2020 Dec 5th]. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe6338 PMID:30425397

Wang J, Jing R, Lai X, Zhang H, Lyu Y, Knoll MD, et al. Acceptance of COVID-19 Vaccination during the COVID-19 Pandemic in China. Vaccines (Basel). 2020 Aug;8(3):E482. [cited 2020 Dec 10th] https://doi.org/10.3390/vaccines8030482 PMID:32867224

Eastwood K, Durrheim DN, Jones A, Butler M. Acceptance of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza vaccination by the Australian public. Med J Aust. 2010 Jan;192(1):33–6. [cited 2020 Dec 6th]. https://doi.org/10.5694/j.1326-5377.2010.tb03399.x PMID:20047546

Dube E, MacDonald NE. Chapter 26: Vaccine Acceptance: Barriers, Perceived Risks, Benefits, and Irrational Beliefs. In: Bloom BR, Lambert P, editors. The Vaccine Book. 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA, USA: Academic Press; 2016. pp. 507–28. [cited 2020 Dec 6th]. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-802174-3.00026-6.

Nguyen T, Henningsen KH, Brehaut JC, Hoe E, Wilson K. Acceptance of a pandemic influenza vaccine: a systematic review of surveys of the general public. Infect Drug Resist. 2011;4:197–207. [cited 2020 Dec 7th]. PMID:22114512

Henrich N, Holmes B. The public’s acceptance of novel vaccines during a pandemic: a focus group study and its application to influenza H1N1. Emerg Health Threats J. 2009;2(2):e8. [cited 2020 Dec 7th]. https://doi.org/10.3402/ehtj.v2i0.7088 PMID:22460289

Nyhan B, Reifler J, Richey S, Freed GL. Effective messages in vaccine promotion: a randomized trial. Pediatrics. 2014 Apr;133(4):e835–42. [cited 2020 Dec 17th]. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2013-2365 PMID:24590751

Sypsa V, Livanios T, Psichogiou M, Malliori M, Tsiodras S, Nikolakopoulos I, et al. Public perceptions in relation to intention to receive pandemic influenza vaccination in a random population sample: evidence from a cross-sectional telephone survey. Euro Surveill. 2009 Dec;14(49):19437. [cited 2020 Dec 9th]. PMID:20003909

Harris PF. Parents’ Perceptions of Healthcare Influences on Their Decisions to Vaccinate Their Children. Walden University. 2020. Available on https://scholarworks.waldenu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=9813&context=dissertations [cited 2020 Dec 5th].

Kestenbaum LA, Feemster KA. Identifying and addressing vaccine hesitancy. Pediatr Ann. 2015 Apr;44(4):e71–5. [cited 2020 Dec 9th]. https://doi.org/10.3928/00904481-20150410-07 PMID:25875982

Aluh DO, Onu JU. The need for psychosocial support amid COVID-19 crises in Nigeria. Psychol Trauma. 2020 Jul;12(5):557–8. [cited 2020 Dec. 8th] https://doi.org/10.1037/tra0000704 PMID:32567871

Oluwadare C. The Social determinant of routine immunization in Ekiti State of Nigeria. Ethno-Med. 2009;3(1):49–56. [cited 2020 Dec 9th]. https://doi.org/10.1080/09735070.2009.11886337.

Ankrah V, Nwaigwe F. Immunization system review and training needs assessment in Ekiti State. February. Ado – Ekiti Ministry of Health. PATHS; 2005 [cited 2020 Dec 4th].

Okunade KS, Sunmonu O, Osanyin GE, Oluwole AA. Knowledge and Acceptability of Human Papillomavirus Vaccination among Women Attending the Gynaecological Outpatient Clinics of a University Teaching Hospital in Lagos, Nigeria. J Trop Med. 2017;2017:8586459. [cited 2020 Dec 5th] https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8586459 PMID:29410683

Deutsche Welle. Nigerian religious leaders demand end to COVID-19 lockdown. 2020. Www.Dw.Com. https://www.dw.com/en/nigerian-religious-leaders-demand-lifting-of-covid-19-lockdown/a-53499533 [cited 2020 Dec 7th]

Oku A, Oyo-Ita A, Glenton C, Fretheim A, Eteng G, Ames H, et al. Factors affecting the implementation of childhood vaccination communication strategies in Nigeria: a qualitative study. BMC Public Health. 2017 Feb;17(1):200. [cited 2020 Dec 5th] Available from: https://bmcpublichealth.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12889-017-4020-6 https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-017-4020-6 PMID:28202001

Ophori EA, Tula MY, Azih AV, Okojie R, Ikpo PE. Current trends of immunization in Nigeria: prospect and challenges. Trop Med Health. 2014 Jun;42(2):67–75. [cited 2020 Dec 7th]. https://doi.org/10.2149/tmh.2013-13 PMID:25237283

Anadolu Agency. (2020). COVID-19: Nigerian doctors oppose Chinese team's visit. Available on https://www.aa.com.tr/en/africa/covid-19-nigerian-doctors-oppose-chinese-teams-visit/1794073 [cited 2020 Dec. 6th].

FBA. Reviving routine immunization in Nigeria design team trip report. March, 2005 [cited 2020 Dec 3rd].

Kaufmann JR, Feldbaum H. Diplomacy and the polio immunization boycott in Northern Nigeria. Health Aff (Millwood). 2009 Jul-Aug;28(4):1091–101. [cited 2020 Dec 16th]. https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.28.4.1091 PMID:19597208

Rubini L. Can social distancing work in low income countries? SSRN. 2020. [cited 2020 Nov 27th] https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3611773.

Determann D, Korfage IJ, Lambooij MS, Bliemer M, Richardus JH, Steyerberg EW, et al. Acceptance of vaccinations in pandemic outbreaks: a discrete choice experiment. PLoS One. 2014 Jul;9(7):e102505. [cited 2020 Dec 7th]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0102505 PMID:25057914

Jarrett C, Wilson R, O’Leary M, Eckersberger E, Larson HJ; SAGE Working Group on Vaccine Hesitancy. Strategies for addressing vaccine hesitancy - A systematic review. Vaccine. 2015 Aug;33(34):4180–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.04.040 PMID:25896377

Nowak GJ, Gellin BG, MacDonald NE, Butler R; SAGE Working Group on Vaccine Hesitancy. Addressing vaccine hesitancy: the potential value of commercial and social marketing principles and practices. Vaccine. 2015 Aug;33(34):4204–11. [cited 2020 Dec 17th]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.04.039 PMID:25900132

Witteman HO. Addressing vaccine hesitancy with values. Pediatrics. 2015 Aug;136(2):215–7. [cited 2020 Dec 27th]. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2015-0949 PMID:26195531

Saitoh A, Saitoh A, Sato I, Shinozaki T, Kamiya H, Nagata S. Effect of stepwise perinatal immunization education: A cluster-randomized controlled trial. Vaccine. 2017 Mar;35(12):1645–51. [cited 2020 Nov 27th]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.01.069 PMID:28222999

Shen SC, Dubey V. Addressing vaccine hesitancy: clinical guidance for primary care physicians working with parents. Can Fam Physician. 2019 Mar;65(3):175–81. [cited 2020 Dec 29th]. PMID:30867173

Glanz JM, Wagner NM, Narwaney KJ, Shoup JA, McClure DL, McCormick EV, et al. A mixed methods study of parental vaccine decision making and parent-provider trust. Acad Pediatr. 2013 Sep-Oct;13(5):481–8. [cited 2020 Nov 26th]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acap.2013.05.030 PMID:24011751

Benin AL, Wisler-Scher DJ, Colson E, Shapiro ED, Holmboe ES. Qualitative analysis of mothers’ decision-making about vaccines for infants: the importance of trust. Pediatrics. 2006 May;117(5):1532–41. [cited 2020 Dec 7th]. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2005-1728 PMID:16651306

Shourie S, Jackson C, Cheater FM, Bekker HL, Edlin R, Tubeuf S, et al. A cluster randomised controlled trial of a web based decision aid to support parents’ decisions about their child’s Measles Mumps and Rubella (MMR) vaccination. Vaccine. 2013 Dec;31(50):6003–10. [cited 2020 Nov 28th]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2013.10.025 PMID:24148574

Moore QT. Improving patient satisfaction through individualized educational practices in radiation therapy departments. Radiat Ther. 2016;25(2):129–36. [cited 2020 Dec 28th].

Feilden Battersby Analysts. Design of Routine Immunization Initiative—Trip Report for DFID. Bath UK: 2005. [cited 2020 Dec 4th].

Neumann-Böhme S, Varghese NE, Sabat I, Barros PP, Brouwer W, van Exel J, et al. Once we have it, will we use it? A European survey on willingness to be vaccinated against COVID-19. Eur J Health Econ. 2020 Sep;21(7):977–82. [cited 2020 Nov 26th]. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10198-020-01208-6 PMID:32591957

Aduah U, Folayan MO, Afe A, Onyeaghala AA, Ajayi IO, Coker M, et al. Risk perception, Public Health Interventions, and COVID-19 Pandemic Control in Sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of Public Health in Africa, 2020. Available on https://www.publichealthinafrica.org/index.php/jphia/article/download/1622/571/ [cited 2020 Dec 7th]

Eskola J, Duclos P, Schuster M, MacDonald NE; SAGE Working Group on Vaccine Hesitancy. How to deal with vaccine hesitancy? Vaccine. 2015 Aug;33(34):4215–7. [cited 2020 Nov 25th]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.04.043 PMID:25896378

Sharma M. Theory of reasoned action & theory of planned behavior in alcohol and drug education. J Alcohol Drug Educ. 2007;51(1):3–7. [cited 2020 Dec 9th].

Models and Mechanisms of Public Health. Measurement and applications of constructs: Theory of reasoned action. 2019. Available on https://courses.lumenlearning.com/suny-buffaloenvironmentalhealth/chapter/measurement-and-application-of-constructs/ [cited 2020 Nov 5th].

Ajzen I, Fishbein M. Understanding attitudes and predicting social behavior. Englewood Cliffs (NJ): Prentice-Hall; 1980.[cited 2020 Dec 10th].

Doswell WM, Braxter BJ, Cha E, Kim KH. Testing the theory of reasoned action in explaining sexual behavior among African American young teen girls. J Pediatr Nurs. 2011 Dec;26(6):e45–54. [cited 2020 Dec 9th]. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pedn.2011.03.007 PMID:22055383

NorI K.M., Shanab E.A.A., & Pearson J.M, (2008). Internet banking acceptance in Malaysia based on the theory of reasoned action. JISTEM J.Inf.Syst. Technol. Manag. (Online) vol.5 no.1 São Paulo 2008. https://doi.org/10.4301/S1807-17752008000100001 [cited 2020 Dec 11th].

WorldBank. Population, total – Nigeria. World Bank. 2019. Available on https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.TOTL?locations=NG on 27th November, 2020.

Criteria for selection of leaders among farmers’ groups for sustainable agricultural development in Delta State, Nigeria - Scientific Figure on ResearchGate. [cited December 2020 Dec 1th] Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/figure/Map-of-Delta-State-Nigeria-showing-the-local-government-Areas_fig1_236839346

Classgist. Sample Size Calculator. Classgist.Com, 2020. Available on https://www.classgist.com/sample-size-calculator.aspx [cited 2020 Dec 5th].

Team UW. HOW TO CALCULATE A RELAIBLE SAMPLE SIZE USING TARO YAMANE METHOD |2016, December 3. Avalaible on UniProjectMaterials Blog. Uniprojectmaterials. https://uniprojectmaterials.com/view-blog/how-to-calculate-a-relaible-sample-size-using-taro-yamane-method Assessed 8th Dec. 2020

Zhong BL, Luo W, Li HM, Zhang QQ, Liu XG, Li WT, et al. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices towards COVID-19 among Chinese residents during the rapid rise period of the COVID-19 outbreak: a quick online cross-sectional survey. Int J Biol Sci. 2020 Mar;16(10):1745–52. [cited 2020 Dec 5th]. https://doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.45221 PMID:32226294

WHO. Survey Tool and Guidance: Rapid, simple, flexible behavioural insights on COVID-19. World Health Organization. Document number: WHO/EURO: 2020-696-40431-54222. 2020d. Available on https://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/436705/COVID-19-survey-tool-and-guidance.pdf [cited 2020 Dec 15th].

Tripathi R, Alqahtani SS, Albarraq AA, Meraya AM, Tripathi P, Banji D, et al. Awareness and Preparedness of COVID-19 Outbreak Among Healthcare Workers and Other Residents of South-West Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Survey. Front Public Health. 2020 Aug;8:482. [cited 2020 Dec 7th] https://doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2020.00482 PMID:33014977

Harmsen IA, Mollema L, Ruiter RA, Paulussen TG, de Melker HE, Kok G. Why parents refuse childhood vaccination: a qualitative study using online focus groups. BMC Public Health. 2013 Dec;13(1):1183. [cited 2020 Dec 7th] https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-13-1183 PMID:24341406

ZOHO. Corona Virus (COVID-19) Awareness Survey Template - Zoho Survey. 2020. Available on https://www.zoho.com/survey/templates/health-care/corona-covid-19-awareness-survey.html Assessed 7th Dec. 2020

Marti M, de Cola M, MacDonald NE, Dumolard L, Duclos P. Assessments of global drivers of vaccine hesitancy in 2014-Looking beyond safety concerns. PLoS One. 2017 Mar;12(3):e0172310. [cited 2020 Dec 27th]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0172310 PMID:28249006

Ahinkorah BO, Ameyaw EK, Hagan JE Jr, Seidu AA, Schack T. Rising Above Misinformation or Fake News in Africa: Another Strategy to Control COVID-19 Spread. Front Commun (Lausanne). 2020;5:1–3. [cited 2020 Dec 6th] https://doi.org/10.3389/fcomm.2020.00045.


Full Text: PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

ISSN: 1597-4292

x
Message