Co-infection with Hepatitis B, C and Human immunodeficiency Virus in Nigerian Children with Sickle Cell Anaemia
Keywords:HBsAg, Anti- HCV antibody, HIV, SCA, Co-infection
Background: Nigeria which has one of the world's highest burdens of children living with Sickle cell anaemia is also endemic for hepatitis B, C and the Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This study set out to determine the prevalence of Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibodies to Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) among children with Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) at the University Of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH).
Methods: This was a prospective hospital based study of children with sickle cell anaemia aged 0.5 years to 18yearspresenting at the haematology clinic of UPTH. A serological screening was carried out over a period of five months to determine the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), HCV and HIV 1 and 2 infections. Other data obtained included sex, age and other demographic data.
Results: There were 132 SCA patients with 72 (54.5%) males and 60 (45.5%) females. Results of HCV anti-body, HBSAg, and HIV were available for 84 patients. Mean age was 7.45 ±1.6 years, age range was 0.5-18years Seventy-eight (59.1%) had no previous blood transfusion, forty (30.3%) had one previous transfusion while eight (6.1%) had more than one previous transfusions. HBsAg was positive in three patients giving a prevalence of 3.6%; Anti-HCV antibody was not found in any patient while two (2.4%) were positive for HIV 1. There was no patient with Hepatitis, HIV and SCA.
Conclusion: This study showed no co-infection with Hepatitis B, C and HIV viral infection among children with SCA at UPTH, Nigeria.
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