Pattern and Determinants of Outcomes of Neurological Emergencies admitted into Children Emergency Ward in a Tertiary Hospital in Port Harcourt, Nigeria
Keywords:tertiary hospital, Pattern, Outcome, Neurological Emergencies, Children Emergency Room
Background: Neurological emergencies are life-threatening central nervous system disorders, significantly contributing to childhood morbidity and mortality. The sequelae may be irreversible and may impact negatively on the quality of life of affected children and their families. This study identified the morbidity pattern and determinants of the outcomes of children with
neurological emergencies in the Children Emergency Room (CHER) of the Rivers State University Teaching Hospital (RSUTH).
Method: A 4-year retrospective study was carried out in the CHER. Data on demography, diagnosis and outcomes of children with neurological disorders were extracted from the records. Data analysed with SPSS 24 were expressed in percentages and frequency tables.
Results: Of the 3040 children admitted in the CHER, 364(12%) aged 0-15 years had neurological emergencies, commoner among males (59.3%) and children aged less than five years (70.9%). Meningitis (40.2%) and febrile convulsion (28.2%) were the topmost diagnoses made. Raised intracranial pressure (17.4%) and head injuries (25.5%) were significantly more prevalent among children aged five years and above. The mortality rate was 61(16.8%) and more among adolescents (30.6%). All the mortalities took place within the first 48hours of admission especially among those with head injuries (46.5%) and perinatal asphyxia (95%), (p < 0.05).
Conclusion: Meningitis and febrile convulsion were the commonest neurologic emergencies seen in this study. Mortality rate was high, especially in the first 48 hours of admission and mainly from perinatal asphyxia and head injuries. Education on the prevention and management of neurologic emergencies should be strengthened.
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