SPECTRUM OF THYROID DISEASES IN SOUTH SOUTH, NIGERIA
Keywords:Thyroid diseases, clinical features, histopathology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
BACKGROUND: Diseases of the thyroid gland are common endocrine disorders encountered globally and the incidence varies from one geographical region to another.
AIM: To determine the dermographic, clinical and histopathological pattern of thyroid diseases as seen in University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital (UPTH).
MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a 6 year retrospective study of all patients with thyroid diseases that were managed at the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital between January 2006 and December 2011. Relevant data were retrieved from the case notes and analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 17.
RESULTS: A total of 80 patients with thyroid diseases were evaluated. They included 11 (13.7%) males and 69 (86.3%) females with a male to female ratio of 1: 6.3. Their ages ranged from 18 to 70 years with a mean of 40.3±4.4 years and peak age at 31-40 years. Colloid goitre was the commonest lesion encountered, seen in 21.3% of the patients with an average age of 37.4±3.1 years and peak age of 21-30 years. Cosmesis was found to be the major indication for surgery and respiratory obstruction the commonest post operative complication seen.
CONCLUSION: Diseases of the thyroid gland are common in Port Harcourt and seen in both genders with a female preponderance. Colloid goitre was the commonest lesion encountered and respiratory obstruction the commonest surgical complication.
KEY WORDS: Thyroid diseases, clinical features, histopathology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.
Lewis EB, Robert DU. Anatomy of the thyroid gland. In: Werner and Ingbar’s The thyroid, A fundamental and clinical text. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott-Raven Press; 2001. P 43-45.
Ganon WF. The Thyroid gland In: Review of medical physiology. 22nd ed. San Francisco: Mc Graw-Hill co; 2005. P 317-332.
Segupta S, Tuli IP, Baruah B, Kesari SP, Ilapakurty B, Gupta A. Spectrum of goitrous lesions in patients at a tertiary care center of Sikkim. Sahel Med J 2014; 17: 112-116.
Maitra A, Abbas AK. Thyroid gland. In: Kumar V, Abbas AK, Fausto N, Aster JC, editors. Robins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Diseases. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunder, 2004. P 1155-1226.
Dean DS, Gharib H. Epidermiology of thyroid nodules. Best Pract Res Clin Endcrinol Metab. 2008; 22: 901-911.
Lamfon HA. Thyroid Disorders in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. Ocean J Appl Sci 2008; 1: 55-58.
Ogbera AO, Fasanmade O, Adeniran O. Patternof thyroid diseases in southern region of Nigeria. Ethin Dis. 2007; 17: 327-330.
Nzegwu MA, Ezume ER, Njeze GE, Olusina DB, Ugochukwu IA. A histological update of thyroid lesions in Enugu, Nigeria. A 5 year retrospective review. Asian J Exp Biol Sci. 2010; 1: 430-433.
Nggada HA, Ojo OS, Adelusola KA. A histopathological analysis of thyroid diseases in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. A review of 274 cases. Niger Postgrad Med J. 2008; 15: 47-51.
Abdulkareem FB, Banjo AA, Elesha SO. Histological review of thyroid lesions: A 13 year retrospective study (1989-2001). Niger Postgrad Med J. 2005;12: 210-214.
Hill AG, Mwangi I, Wanga L. Thyroid diseases in rural Kenyan Hospital. East Afr Med J. 2004; 81: 631-633.
Chung EB, Rogers N, White JE. Thyroid diseases in black patients. J Natl Med Assoc. 1977; 69: 573-577.
Seleye-Fubara D, Numbere N, Etebu EN. Pathology of common diseases of the thyroid gland in Port Harcourt. Port Hart Med J. 2009; 3: 312-317.
Edino ST, Mohammed AZ, Ochicha O. Thyroid gland diseases in Kano. Niger Postgrad Med J. 2004; 11: 103-106.
Ntyonga-Pono MP. Gabonese thyroid pathology in a hospital milieu in Libreville: 137 cases. Bull Soc Pathol Extot. 1998; 91: 226-228.
Handu U, Garg S, Mohan H, Nagarkar N. Role of fine needle aspiration in diagnosis and management of thyroid lesions: A study of 434 patients. J Cytol. 2008; 25: 13-17.
Solomon R, Iliyasu Y, Mohammed AZ. Histopathological pattern of thyroid lesions in Kano, Nigeria: A 10 year retrospective review (2002-2011). Niger J Basic Clin Sci. 2015; 12: 55-60.
Olurin EO, Itayemi SO, Oluwasanmi JO, Ajayi OO. The pattern of thyroid diseases in Ibadan. Nig Med J. 1973; 3: 58-65.
Osime U, Okobia MN. Thyrotoxicosis in Benin City: a study of surgical treatment of 50 patients. JMBR. 2004; 3: 81-85.
Darwish AH, Al Sindi KA, Jihene EB. Pattern of thyroid diseases: a histopathological study. Bahrain Med Bull. 2006; 28: 1-6.
Adeniji KA, Anjorin AS, Ogunsulire A. Histological pattern of thyroid diseases in a Nigerian population. Niger Q J Hosp Med. 1998; 8: 241-244.
Phillipo LC, Peter R, Joseph BM, Emmanuel SK, Godfrey G, Alphonce B, et al. patterns and outcome of surgical management of goitres in Bugando Medical Centre in northwestern Tanzania. Tanzania J Health Res. 2011; 13: 1-9.
Salmon YG, Omer AE. Total thyroidectomy for bilateral benign thyroid diseases: safety profile and therapeutic efficacy. Kuwait Med J. 2007; 39: 149-152.
Acun Z, Comert M, Cihon A, Ulukent SC, Ucan B, Cakmak GK. Near total thyroidectomy could be the best treatment for thyroid in endemic regions. Archives Surg. 2004; 139: 444-447.
Giddings AE. The history of thyroidectomy. Royal Society of Medicine 1998; 91: 3-6.
Bellantone R, Lombardi CP, Bossola M. Total thyroidectomy for management of benign thyroid disease: review of 526 cases. World J Surg. 2002; 26: 1468-1471.
Abede B, Osman M. Goitre in a teaching hospital in the north western Ethopia. East and Central Afr J Surg. 2006; 11: 21-27
The Journal is owned, published and copyrighted by the Nigerian Medical Association, River state Branch. The copyright of papers published are vested in the journal and the publisher. In line with our open access policy and the Creative Commons Attribution License policy authors are allowed to share their work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
This is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author.
The use of general descriptive names, trade names, trademarks, and so forth in this publication, even if not specifically identified, does not imply that these names are not protected by the relevant laws and regulations. While the advice and information in this journal are believed to be true and accurate on the date of its going to press, neither the authors, the editors, nor the publisher can accept any legal responsibility for any errors or omissions that may be made. The publisher makes no warranty, express or implied, with respect to the material contained herein.
TNHJ also supports open access archiving of articles published in the journal after three months of publication. Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g, in institutional repositories or on their website) within the stated period, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access). All requests for permission for open access archiving outside this period should be sent to the editor via email to firstname.lastname@example.org.