Maternal Risk Factors Associated With Low Birth Weight: A Retrospective Study
BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW) which has become a major public health issue affects mostly developing countries and is a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. It is significantly associated with maternal variables as age, height, mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and gestational age (GA)
METHOD: The study is a retrospective descriptive study conducted at general hospital Bonny, Rivers State. The study involved retrospective data collection from the records of participants kept at the records department of the hospital. Study population included all eligible pregnant women who presented for antenatal care (ANC) and also had their babies delivered at the hospital. Data for the research was derived from existing records in the past six years, from 1st January 2015 to 31st December 2020. Records were scrutinized for completeness and records without complete data on variables required were excluded. Also excluded, were records which revealed medical condition which could affect fetal growth. Multiple regression analysis was done with SPSS version 23.0 to determine continues variables which were significant at p value less than or equal 0.05 level.
RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 29.3±5.8 with women within the age grade 21 – 30 years as the most predominant in the study. Most women were employed; 274 (68.5%) while 283 (70.8%) were partnered. There was a statistically significant association between maternal MAP, height, age and GA with birth weight of infants.
CONCLUSION: Maternal variables such as age, MAP, height and GA of newborn were significant predictors of LBW.
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