Cancer incidence in the Niger delta region of Nigeria; a population based review of Port Harcourt cancer registry

Obiorah Chinedu Christopher

Abstract


Abstract

Background: Cancer poses growing threat to public health in Nigeria.

Aim: To present the first population based cancer incidence data in the two most populous local government areas of Rivers state.

Methodology: Ten years review of Port Harcourt cancer registry data. 

Results.

Of the 2,682 cancers recorded, 1,191 (44.4%) were males and 1,491 (55.6%) were females. The age range and mean (SD) for males and females together were 1 - 125 years and 51.9 (17.7) respectively.  The mean (SD) and peak ages for males were 57.6 (19.1) and 70 - 74 years, while for females, they were 47.3 (15) and 40 - 44 years. While 73% of patients less than 45 years were females, 54.5% of those older than 45 years were males. The age standardized incidence rates/100,000 (ASR) ranged between 28 in 2014 and 101.5 in 2017 with a mean of 52.5.

The five commonest cancer sites were - breast - (29%), prostate (25.2%), cervix - (6.6%), colorectal - (5.4%) and blood (leukaemia) - (4.3%).  The bases of diagnoses were: Histology: (71.7%), cytology: (21.2%) clinical impression: (5.3%), autopsy/death certificate review finding: (1.8%).

Conclusion: Cancer incidence is increasing in our locality without commensurate efforts at controlling it.  More females who present with lower mean and peak ages are involved compared to males. Breast and prostate are by far the commonest cancer sites observed. Government and donor agencies should support cancer registration efforts in order to optimize generation of quality population-based data that is necessary for cancer control.


Keywords


Words: Cancer, Registry, Population, Port Harcourt, River State.

References


Reference

Ferlay J, Soerjomataram I, Dikshit R, et al. Cancer Incidence and mortality worldwide: Sources, methods and major patterns in GLOBOCAN 2012. Int J Cancer 2015; 136: E359-E386.

Sylla BS, Wild CP. A million Africans a year dying from cancer by 2030: What can cancer research and control offer to the continent? Int J Cancer 2011; 130 (2): 245–250.

Thun MJ, DeLancey JO, Center MM, Jemal A, Ward EM. The global burden of cancer: priorities for prevention. Carcinogenesis. 2010 Jan; 31: 100–110.

Jedy-Agba E, Curado MP, Ogunbiyi O, et al. Cancer Incidence in Nigeria: A report from population-based Cancer Registries. Cancer Epidemiol 2012; 36(5): e271–e278. doi:10.1016/j.canep.2012.04.007.

United Nations Environment Programme. Environmental Assessment of Ogoniland, accessed online through https://postconflict.unep.ch/publications/OEA/UNEP_OEA.pdf on 9th March 2019.

al-Haddad BJ, Jedy-Agba E, Oga E, Ezeome ER, Obiorah CC, et al. Comparability, Diagnostic Validity and Completeness of Nigerian Cancer Registries. Cancer Epidemiol. 2015;39:456-464.

Jedy-Agba EE, Curado MP, Oga E, Samaila MO, Ezeome ER, Obiorah C, Erinomo OO, et al. The role of hospital based cancer registries in low and middle income countries – The Nigerian case study. Cancer Epidemiology. 2012. Available online at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/J.canep.2012.05.010.

Fritz, CPA.; Jack, A.; Shanmugaratnam, K.; Sobin, L.; Parkin, DM.; Whelan, S., editors. International Classification of Diseases for Oncology. 3. Vol. 2000. World Health Organisation; 2000.

Ahmad OB, Boschi-Pinto C, Lopez AD, Murray CJL, Lozano R, Inoue M. Age Standardization of Rates: A New WHO Standard. GPE Discussion Paper Series: No.31 EIP/GPE/EBD, World Health Organization 2001.

National Population Commission, Federal Republic of Nigeria. 2006 Population and Housing Census. Priority Table Vol IV. Assesses online via www.population.gov.ng on 1st Aug. 2018.

Bray F, Moller B. Predicting the future burden of cancer. Nat Rev Cancer. 2006;6: 63-74.

U.S. Cancer Statistics Working Group. US cancer statistics: 1999–2009 incidence and mortality web-based report. Atlanta GA: USDHHS, CDC; 2013. www.cdc.gov/uscs.

Deeks SG. HIV infection, inflammation, immunosenescence, and aging. Annu Rev Med. 2011;62(1):141–55.

Campisi J. Aging, cellular senescence, and cancer. Annu Rev Physiol. 2013;75:685–705.

Ukah CO, Nwofor AM. Cancer Incidence in South-East Nigeria: A Report from Nnewi Cancer Registry. Orient J Med. 2017; 29[1-2]: 48 - 55.

Jedy-Agba E., Curado MP, Ogunbiyi O, Oga E, Fabowale T, Igbinoba F, Osubor G, et al. Cancer Incidence in Nigeria: A Report from Population-based Cancer Registries. Cancer Epid. 2012 ; 36: 271–278.

Torre LA, Bray F, Siegel RL, Ferlay J, Lortet-Tieulent J, Jemal A.

Global Cancer Statistics, 2012. CA Cancer J Clin. 2015;65:87–108

Cartwright RA, Gurney KA, Moorman AV. Sex ratios and the risk of haematological malignancies. Br J Haematol. 2002; 118:1071 - 7

Cook MB, Dawsey SM, Freedman ND, Inskip PD, Wichner SM, Quraishi SM, Devesa SS, McGlynn KA. Sex disperities in cancer incidence by period and age. Cancer Epidemiol BiomarkersPrev. 2009; 18:1174 - 82.

Edgren G, Liang L, Adami HO, Chang ET. Enigmatic sex disparities in cancer incidence. Eur J Epidemiol. 2012; 27:187 - 96.

Mills EJ, Bakanda C, Birungi J, Chan K, Hogg RS, Ford N, Nachega JB, Cooper CL. Male gender predicts mortality in a large cohort of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in Uganda. J Int AIDS Soc. 2011; 14:52.

Forouzanfar MH, Foreman KJ, Delossantos AM, Lozano R, Lopez AD, Murray CJ, Naghavi M. Breast and cervical cancer in 187 countries between 1980 and 2010: a systematic analysis. Lancet. 2011; 378: 1461 - 1484.

World Health Organisation's Global Health workforce Statistics O, Supplemented by Country data. Physicians (per 1000people); 2014.

Ebughe GA., Ekanem IA, Omoronyia OE, Nnoli MA, Ikpi EE, Ugbem TI. Prostate Cancer Incidence in Calabar - Nigeria. BJMMR, 2016; 14(5) : 1-10.

Colditz GA, Baer HJ, Tamimi RM. Breast cancer. In: Schottenfeld D, Fraumeni JF Jr, eds. Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention. 3rd ed. New York: Oxford University Press; 2006:995-1012.

Chlebowski RT, Manson JE, Anderson GL, et al. Estrogen plus progestin and breast cancer incidence and mortality in the Women’s Health Initiative Observational Study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2013;105:526-535.

Bray F, Parkin DM. Evaluation of data quality in the cancer registry: principles and methods. Part I: comparability, validity and timeliness. Eur J Cancer. 2009; 45:747–755.

Curado MP, Voti L, Sortino-Rachou AM. Cancer registration data and quality indicators in low and middle income countries: their interpretation and potential use for the improvement of cancer care. Cancer Causes Control. 2009; 20:751–756.


Full Text: PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

ISSN: 1597-4292

x
Message