Evaluation of Lymph Node Biopsy: A Five-Year Review of the value of Lymph Node Biopsies in a Tertiary Health Facility in northeastern Nigeria
Background: Several diseases are associated with lymph node enlargement either as primary lesion or secondary to other disease conditions. It is essential to define the pattern of disorders presenting as lymph node enlargement in an environment.
Methods: We reviewed the histopathological diagnosis of biopsied lymph nodes from 2010 -2015 that presented to University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital. The demographic variables were sex, age in years and defined age group. The research variables were site and cause of lymphadenopathy. Retrieved histopathological results considered were those in which tissues were processed, stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E), and examined by a specialist.
Results: Of the records of 145 patients considered, cervical lymph nodes were the most biopsied region. Tuberculous (TB) adenitis lesions, 43 (29.7%) constituted the commonest cases, it was followed by secondary metastasis, 39 (26.9%) and 36 (24.8%) cases of reactive hyperplasia. The proportion of Hodgkin’s and non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma was 11 (7.6%) and 16 (11.0%) respectively. There was progressive increase in mean ages ± SD, from reactive hyperplasia (22.4±18.2) to TB adenitis (27.1±14.2) to non –Hodgkin’s (29.5±21.3) to Hodgkin’s (36.8±20.4) to secondary metastatic lesion (43.0±18.6).
Conclusion: Tuberculosis was the most common cause of lymph node enlargement; this was followed by secondary metastatic lesions especially among adults and the elderly. Cervical lymph nodes are the most frequently enlarged region irrespective of the underlying cause of the enlargement.
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