Cancer vulnerability assessment: A geospatial bio-accessibility approach using polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils of Lagos, Nigeria.

Oluwasegun Tamuno-Owanemi Adetunde

Abstract


Background: Cancer is on the increase globally. Cancer could be associated with hazards from anthropogenic activities. An assessment was made for site-specific potential health risks from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils across Lagos metropolis.

Aim: The study attempted to determine the vulnerability of different anthropogenic activities to cancer in the study area.

Methods: The Fed Organic Estimation Human Simulation Test method was used to determine bio-accessibility for 16 priority PAHs. This was then spatially modeled using geographic information system.

Results: The total and bio-accessible concentrations of PAHs ranged between 689 - 253,922 ng/g and 91.5 - 760 ng/g respectively. For persons involved with activities at these sites, their mean daily intake of PAHs in these soils showed no observable health risk. Estimated theoretical cancer risk ranged 6.5 x 10-07 to 5.5 x 10-10 for the study area, based on their bio-accessible concentration. Exposures to PAHs in surface soils were below the health guidelines for normal (1 x 10-06) exposures. The spatial vulnerability index for cancer developed show some variation within the study area from 0.2 – 0.0002 all falling below the normal exposure risk level of 1.0.  

Conclusion: The vulnerability to cancer based on different anthropogenic activities assessed fell below acceptable risk levels. However, it is important to reduce human exposure to even low concentrations of bio-accessible PAHs due to their tendency to bio-accumulate in plants, humans and other organisms. 


Keywords


FOREShT, Bio-accessibility, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Estimated Theoretical Cancer Risk (ER), geographic information system (GIS), spatial vulnerability index.

References


Li P, Li X, Stagnitti F, Zhanga H, Lin X, Zang S: Studies on the sources of benzo[a]pyrene in grain and aboveground tissues of rice plants. J. Hazardous Mat.. 2009, 162: 463–468.

Manoli E, Kouras A, Samara C: Profile analysis of ambient and source emitted particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from three sites in northern Greece. Chemosphere 2004, 56: 867–878.

Kim, D., Kim, S., & Lee, D., (2009). Relationship of pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons contamination among environmental solid media. J. Environ. Monitoring. 2009, 11: 1244 –1252.

Oomen A, Rompelberg C, Bruil M, Dobbe C, Pereboom D, Sips A: Development of an In Vitro Digestion Model for Estimating the Bioaccessibility of Soil Contaminants. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 2003, 44: 281–287.

USEPA: Child-specific exposure factors handbook, 2008a. USEPA, Washington D.C.

USEPA: Standard Operating Procedure for an In Vitro Bioaccessibility Assay for Lead in Soil, 2008b. USEPA, Washington D.C.

Adetunde O, Mills G, Olayinka K, Alo B: Assessment of occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons via involuntary ingestion of soil from contaminated soils in Lagos, Nigeria. J. Environ. Sci. Hlth. 2014, 49: 1661–1671.

Intawongse M, Dean J: Uptake of heavy metals by vegetable plants grown on contaminated soil and their bioavailability in the human gastrointestinal tract. Food Addit. Contam. 2006, 23: 36-48.

Cave M, Wragg J, Harrison I, Vane C, Wiele T, Groeve E: Comparison of Batch Mode and Dynamic Physiologically Based Bioaccessibility Tests for PAHs in Soil Samples. Environ. Sci. Tech. 2010 44: 2654-2660.

Peijnenburg W, Jager T: Monitoring approaches to assess bioaccessibility and bioavailability of metals: Matrix issues. Ecotoxic. Environ. Safety 2003, 56: 63-77.

Stokes J, Paton G, Semple K: Behaviour and assessment of bioavailability of organic contaminants in soil: relevance for risk assessment and remediation. Soil Use Mgt. 2006, 21: 475-486.

Hursthouse A, Kowalczyk G: Transport and dynamics of toxic pollutants in the natural environment and their effect on human health : research gaps and challenge gaps and challenge. Environ. Geochem. Hlth. 2008, 31: 165–187.

Morrow B: Identifying and Mapping Community Vulnerability. Disasters 1999, 23: 1–18.

Longley P, Goodchild M, Maguire D, Rhind D: Geographical information systems and science 2005. John Wiley and Sons Ltd., Chichester, England : 315–320.

Ali S, Akber M, Eqani S, Khalid R, Bostan N, Saqib Z, Shen H: Chemosphere Human lead (Pb) exposure via dust from different land use settings of Pakistan : A case study from two urban mountainous cities. Chemosphere 2016, 155: 259–265.

Sower G, Anderson K: Spatial and temporal variation of freely dissolved PAHs in an urban river undergoing superfund remediation. Environ. Sci. Tech. 2014, 42: 9065–9071.

Man B, Kang Y, Wang H, Lau W, Li H, Sun X, Giesy J, Chow K, Wong M: Cancer risk assessments of Hong Kong soils contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. J. Hzd. Mat. 2013, 261: 770–776.

Ilesanmi A: Urban sustainability in the context of Lagos mega-city. J. Geog. Reg. Plan. 2015, 3: 240–252.

Opoko A, Oluwatayo A: Trends in Urbanisation : Implication for Planning and Low-Income Housing Delivery in Lagos , Nigeria. Arch. Res. 2014, 4: 15–26.

Marce R, Borrull F: Solid-phase extraction of polycyclic aromatic compounds. J. Chrom. 2000, 885: 273-290.

Oluseyi T, Olayinka K, Alo B, Smith R: Improved analytical extraction and clean-up techniques for the determination of PAHs in contaminated soil samples. Inter. J. Environ. Res. 2011, 5: 681-690.

Silva B, Adetunde O, Oluseyi T, Olayinka K, Alo B: Comparison of some extraction methods and clean-up procedures for the 16 priority US EPA PAHS. J. Sci. Res. Develop. 2011, 13: 129–143.

Lorenzi D, Entwistle J, Cave M, Wragg J, Dean J: The application of an in vitro gastrointestinal extraction to assess the oral bioaccessibility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from a former industrial site. Analytica Chimica Acta 2012, 735: 54–61.

Tomczak M: Spatial interpolation and its uncertainty using automated anisotropic inverse distance weighting ( IDW ) - cross-validation / jackknife approach. J. Geog. Info. Dec. Anlys. 1998, 2: 18–30.

Robinson T, Metternicht G: Testing the performance of spatial interpolation techniques for mapping soil properties. Comp. Elect. Agric. 2006, 40: 97–108.

ATSDR: Public Health Assessment Guidance Manual Appendix G: Calculating Exposure Doses 2005. In: registry Aftsad, editor. ATSDR, USA

ODH: Evaluation of Ohio EPA soil sampling in support of the Clyde and eastern sandusky county childhood cancer investigation 2011. Clyde Sandusky County, Ohio. Ohio Department of Health, US Ohio: 32.

Brandon E, Oomen A, Rompelberg C, Versantvoort C, Engelen J, Sips A: Consumer product in vitro digestion model: Bioaccessibility of contaminants and its application in risk assessment. Regul. Toxic.Pharm. 2006, 44: 161–171.

National Bureau of Statistics: Annual Abstract of Statistics 2012. NBS, Abuja.

Maliszewska-Kordybach B: Dissipation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Freshly Contaminated Soils – The Effect of Soil Physicochemical Properties and Aging. Water Air Soil Pol. 2005, 168: 113-128.

Van de Wiele T, Verstraete W, Siciliano S: Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Release from a Soil Matrix in the In Vitro Gastrointestinal Tract. Jornal of Environmental Quality 2004, 33: 1343-1353.

Kogel-Knabner I, Totsche K, Raber B: Desorption of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from soil in the presence of dissolved organic matter: Effect of solution composition and aging. J. Environ. Qual. 2000, 29: 906–916.

Tao Y, Zhang S, Wang Z, Christie P: Predicting bioavailability of PAHs in field-contaminated soils by passive sampling with triolein embedded cellulose acetate membranes. Environ. Pol. 2009, 157: 545-551.

Hansen J, Oomen A, Edelgaard I, Gron C: Oral Bioaccessiblity and Leaching: Tests for Soil Risk Assessment. Engin. Life Sci. 2007, 7: 170-176.


Full Text: PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

ISSN: 1597-4292

x
Message